Two Women foregrounded @ Women's March 2018, CC BY-SA 2.0 by Mobilus

Argument – Argumentation

What is Argument? Argumentation? Argument is an iterative process that informs humankind’s search for meaning. Argument vs Persuasion The terms argument and persuasion may be used synonymously, yet subject matter experts in Writing Studies typically draw distinctions: Related Concepts: Evidence; Persuasion; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning 3 Types of Argument Arguments come in all shapes and ...

Toulmin Model Example by Chiswick Chap, CC BY-SA 3.0

Toulmin Argument

Stephen Toulmin’s (1958) model of argument conceptualizes argument as a series of six rhetorical moves: Toulmin argument works well in situations where disputes are being reviewed by a third party — such as judge, an arbitrator, or evaluation committee. Related Concepts: Evidence; Persuasion; Rhetorical Analysis; Rhetorical Reasoning Why Does Toulmin Argument Matter? Declarative knowledge of Toulmin ...

statue of Aristotle by a building in Freiburg, Germany - photo “Aristotle” by maha-online is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Aristotelian Argument

Aristotelian Argument is a deductive approach to argumentation that presents a thesis, an argument up front — somewhere in the introduction — and then endeavors to prove that point via deductive reasoning and exemplification. Scholarly conversations regarding this style of argument can be traced to the 4th century BEC, including, especially Aristotle’s Rhetoric as well ...


What is Overgeneralization? Overgeneralization refers to sweeping generalizations based on an opinions, anecdotes, assumptions, or prejudices. Here are some examples of overgeneralization: Each of these sentences presents propositions as facts. These sort of murky, underdeveloped thoughts are not grounded in authoritative evidence. Thus, this is a formal logic error, a logical fallacy. Synonyms Overgeneralization may ...


Warrants are assumptions that link claims to grounds. Warrants can be scientific laws, principles of historical interpretation, a law statute or psychological generalization about human behavior. Warrants may be implied or explicitly stated to support an argument.


Grounds are evidence Grounds is a term that Stephen T


What is a Claim? Claims are assertions, arguments, and conclusions about something. For instance, claims can be about definitions, causes and effects, claims of fact, or policies. A claim may me a macro-claim—i.e., a major claim that informs an entire text. Or a claim may be a micro-claim—a subclaim attached to a larger claim. Logical ...

Baseball payers argue with one another as well as the ref.

Counterarguments – Rebuttal – Refutation

Counterargument Definition Counterargument refers to an argument given in response to another argument that takes an alternative approach to the issue at hand. Synonyms Counterargument may also be known as rebuttal or refutation. Related Concepts: Audience Awareness; Authority (in Speech and Writing); Critical Literacy; Ethos; Openness; Researching Your Audience Guide to Counterarguments in Writing Studies ...

Knowledge Claim

Knowledge Claims are the topics, the scholarly conversations, that subject-matter-experts have with one another as they engage in research or discuss the knowledge claims of others. Knowledge claims are grounded in dialectic – the ongoing conversation of humankind. Knowledge claims may be grounded in theory, dialog, and hermeneutics. As humans learn more about the universe ...

Writing Commons, Rogerian Argument

Rogerian Argument

Solving Problems by Negotiating Differences 

How many times have you been in an argument that you knew you couldn't win? Are you reluctant to change your mind about certain social, political, or personal issues? Do you have an unshakable faith in a particular religion or philosophy? For example, are you absolutely certain that abortion is immoral under all circumstances? Are you categorically against animal experimentation for advancements in medicine?